Sunstein, C. #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media (Princeton Univ. Press, 2018).
Iyengar, S. & Hahn, K. S. Red media, blue media: evidence of ideological selectivity in media use. J. Commun. 59, 19–39 (2009).
van Alstyne, M. & Brynjolfsson, E. Electronic communities: global villages or cyberbalkanization? In Proc. International Conference on Information Systems 5 https://aisel.aisnet.org/icis1996/5 (1996).
van Dijck, J. The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media (Oxford Univ. Press, 2013).
McLuhan, M. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (Univ. of Toronto Press, 1962).
Farrell, H. The consequences of the internet for politics. Ann. Rev. Pol. Sci. 15, 35–52 (2012).
Conover, M. D. et al. Political polarization on Twitter. Proc. Intl AAAI Conf. Web Soc. Media 133, 89–96 (2011).
Bail, C. A. et al. Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarization. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, 9216–9221 (2018).
Martin, T. community2vec: vector representations of online communities encode semantic relationships. In Proc. 2nd Workshop on NLP and Computational Social Science 27–31 (2017).
Garg, N., Schiebinger, L., Jurafsky, D. & Zou, J. Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, E3635–E3644 (2018).
Bolukbasi, T., Chang, K.-W., Zou, J. Y., Saligrama, V. & Kalai, A. T. Man is to computer programmer as woman is to homemaker? Debiasing word embeddings. Adv. Neural Inf. Process. Syst. 29, 4349–4357 (2016).
Caliskan, A., Bryson, J. J. & Narayanan, A. Semantics derived automatically from language corpora contain human-like biases. Science 356, 183–186 (2017).
Kozlowski, A. C., Taddy, M. & Evans, J. A. The geometry of culture: analyzing the meanings of class through word embeddings. Am. Soc. Rev. 84, 905–949 (2019).
Shi, F., Shi, Y., Dokshin, F. A., Evans, J. A. & Macy, M. W. Millions of online book co-purchases reveal partisan differences in the consumption of science. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1, 0079 (2017).
Del Vicario, M. et al. Echo chambers: emotional contagion and group polarization on Facebook. Sci. Rep. 6, 37825 (2016).
Pariser, E. The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding from You (Penguin, 2011).
Flaxman, S., Goel, S. & Rao, J. M. Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption. Public Opin. Q. 80, 298–320 (2016).
Bakshy, E., Messing, S. & Adamic, L. A. Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science 348, 1130–1132 (2015).
DiMaggio, P., Evans, J. & Bryson, B. Have American’s social attitudes become more polarized? Am. J. Sociol. 102, 690–755 (1996).
Barberá, P., Jost, J. T., Nagler, J., Tucker, J. A. & Bonneau, R. Tweeting from left to right: is online political communication more than an echo chamber? Psychol. Sci. 26, 1531–1542 (2015).
Adamic, L. A. & Glance, N. The political blogosphere and the 2004 US election: divided they blog. In Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Link Discovery 36–43 (2005).
An Examination of the 2016 Electorate, Based on Validated Voters https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2018/08/09/an-examination-of-the-2016-electorate-based-on-validated-voters/ (Pew Research Center, 2018).
Hawley, G. Making Sense of the Alt-Right (Columbia Univ. Press, 2017).
Simmel, G. Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations (Free Press, 1955).
Breiger, R. L. The duality of persons and groups. Social Forces 53, 181–190 (1974).
Bourdieu, P. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Routledge, 1984).
Crenshaw, K. W. On Intersectionality: Essential Writings (The New Press, 2017).
Baumgartner, J., Zannettou, S., Keegan, B., Squire, M. & Blackburn, J. The Pushshift Reddit dataset. In Proc. International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media 14, 830–839 (2020).
Kumar, S., Hamilton, W. L., Leskovec, J. & Jurafsky, D. Community interaction and conflict on the web. In Proc. 2018 World Wide Web Conference 933–943 (2018).
Waller, I. & Anderson, A. Generalists and specialists: using community embeddings to quantify activity diversity in online platforms. In Proc. 2019 World Wide Web Conference 1954–1964 (2019).
Levy, O. & Goldberg, Y. Dependency-based word embeddings. In Proc. 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics 2, 302–308 (2014).
Levy, O. & Goldberg, Y. Neural word embedding as implicit matrix factorization. Adv. Neural Inf. Process. Syst. 27, 2177–2185 (2014).
Schlechtweg, D., Oguz, C. & im Walde, S. S., Second-order co-occurrence sensitivity of skip-gram with negative sampling. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.02479 (2019).